There are several SF and RAW management facilities in operation in the Czech Republic. In addition to power generating units with four reactor units VVER 440/213 the site of NPP Dukovany, owned by CEZ, a. s., also includes following nuclear installations:
- ISFSF (Interim SF Storage Facility) Dukovany – in operation since 1997,
- SFSF (SF Storage Facility) Dukovany – in operation since April 2008 and
- RAW repository Dukovany – in operation since 1995, owned by the state since 2000
The NPP Dukovany facilities also include SF pools and shafts of transport cask used to handle SF in each production unit. Similar facilities are also a part of NPP Temelín where two reactor units VVER 1000/320 are installed. The NPP Temelín site also includes SFSF Temelín which has been in trial operation since September 2010, SF generated by the operation of the research reactor LVR–15 in CV Rež s. r. o. may be stored in the HLW Storage Facility in ÚJV Rež a. s., which is classified as an standalone nuclear installation in agreement with the Czech law. The other research reactors in Centrum výzkumu Rež s. r. o. (LR–0) and FJFI Prague (VR–1) do not produce any SF, due to their small thermal output and limited time of operation.
In addition to RAW Repository Dukovany used for disposal of RAW from operation of nuclear power plants and selected categories of institutional RAW, there are the following disposal systems on the territory of the Czech Republic:
- RAW repository Hostím in Beroun (active in the period of 1959-1964; closed in 1997),
- RAW repository Richard in Litomerice (institutional waste; in operation since 1964),
- RAW repository Bratrství in Jáchymov (disposal of RAW contaminated by natural radionuclides; in operation since 1974).
The Policy adopted by the Czech Government on May 15, 2002 (Government Resolution No. 487/2002) is a fundamental document which defines the RAW management policy and strategy of the government and its agencies (waste generated from nuclear installations and workplaces with ionizing radiation sources in healthcare, research and industry) approximately by 2025, with an outlook to the end of the 21st century, with regard to generators of radioactive waste and spent fuel. The main principles of the Policy are:
- RAW and SF management in the Czech Republic is the responsibility of authorized private entities and SÚRAO and, if needed, the Authority will also provide extended services for the generators,
- long-term disposal of low and intermediate short-term RAW in the Czech Republic lies in their safe disposal in the existing near-surface repositories whose economical operation has been continuously evaluated and optimized,
- one of disposal alternatives for low and intermediate long-term RAW and high-level waste is the use of DGR; before its commissioning, these materials will be stored at their generators or in facilities of the Authority,
- technological procedures for RAW management and preparations to implement the deep repository in the Czech Republic comply with the legislative requirements and foreign research and technology development results. At the same time, possibilities of SF reprocessing and the use of new technologies leading to reduction of SF volume and toxicity are being monitored and evaluated,
- costs of activities associated with the development of DGR for RAW and SF disposal are paid from the nuclear account, a source funded by RAW and SF generators in agreement with the Atomic Act and the Government Order, while the nuclear account as a part of the governmental assets and liabilities is managed by the Ministry of Finance. This ensures that disposal costs for waste currently generated will not be transferred to future generations,
- the general public is kept informed about the Policy and its fulfillment.
In connection with the planned development of new nuclear build SÚJB, in cooperation with MPO and SÚRAO, initiated a process of the Policy updating. At the end of 2010 SÚRAO completed a draft of principles of the new Policy.
State administration and supervision of the utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation and in the field of radiation protection is performed by the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SÚJB). The SÚJB competence is defined in the Atomic Act, Section 3 (see http://www.sujb.cz/fileadmin/sujb/docs/legislativa/zakony/ SUJB_CR_Atomic_Act.pdf).
The joint-stock company CEZ, a.s., the holder of the license to operate NPP Dukovany and NPP Temelín, SÚRAO, CV Rež and ÚJV Rež a. s. are charged with the primary responsibility for nuclear safety and radiation protection of their SF and RAW management facilities.